职场的蜕变带给职业教育家和企业的挑战和机会

作者:丹尼斯?哈... 来源: 发布时间:2014-09-11

职场的蜕变带给职业教育家和企业的挑战和机会
Dr. Dennis Harkins, Orange Coast College President(加州橘海岸学院校长 丹尼斯•哈肯斯博士)


• I would like to thank you for the opportunity to talk to you about The Challenges and Opportunities of an Evolving Workplace for Vocational Educators and Industry.
• 很感谢能有这次机会来进行关于展开职业教育者和行业在不断发展的工作环境中面临的的挑战和机会的演讲。
• The United States is placing increasing importance on Vocational Education as a means to develop manufacturing capacity, take advantage of innovation, and to lead students to a career of employability.
• 美国正在布置将职业教育作为一种发展制造能力的手段提到越来越重要的地位,利用创新让学生达到就业能力。
• Community Colleges are seen as the sector of higher education that is positioned for training and retraining of an educated workforce.
• 社区学院被作为高等教育的一部分用来训练和再训练已经受过良好教育的劳动力。
• This presentation is structured in two major areas.
• 这个描述被架构在两个主要领域
• The first, second, third, and forth subheadings review the American higher education at the national level to the institutional perspective at Orange Coast College.
• 第一第二第三和第四个副标题是在橘海岸学院复习美国高等教育在国家级机构的观点
• The firth, sixth, seventh, and eighth subsections discuss the development of vocational programs along with current and future connections between industry and higher education institutions.
• 第五到第八个副标题分段是在讨论职业项目的发展伴随着产业、高等教育制度间的现在和未来的联系。
• The USA higher education structure at the national level focuses on broad policies through the Department of Education and a network of quality assurance agencies that accredit programs and institutions.
• 国家级的美国高等教育组织通过教育和网络部门质量保证机构把他们的精力放在广泛的政策上
• At the state level there are government agencies that define the educational structure within the state and provide support and coordination between the various sectors. In the case of elementary and secondary school systems and Community Colleges there are local governing boards to represent the interest of the local communities. These board may be appointed by the Governor or elected by the local community.
• 在国家层级上有政府机构定义国内教育结构并提供支持和协调在多个部门中间。就初级和中级学校体系和社区学院有当地的管理委员会代表社区利益。这些委员会可能是由州长指定或者社区选举而来。
• Accreditation is a voluntary process by institutions of higher education although it is necessary to participate in national funding schemes.

• 评审是高等教育体系一个自愿的过程,尽管参加国家资助计划是很重要的。
• The higher education focus in America is based on a solid foundation of the liberal arts. The liberal arts being comprised on general knowledge necessary for a democratic society and are seen as a requisite knowledge to advanced and focused study . Some institutions of higher education have a technology emphasis in the later years of the programs.
• 专注于美国的高等教育是基于基础雄厚的人文科学。人文科学组成的常识对民主社会很重要,并被认为是集中学习和先进学习的必要知识。很多高等教育体系在项目方面拥有技术重点在以后几年的项目中。
• Students can transfer from one institution to another ands from one sector of higher education to another with some level of coordination and comparability of study.
• 学生可以从一个体系中转学去另一个,也可以通过某种程度的协调研究和可比性研究由一个部门转去另一个。
• All students have an opportunity to participate in higher education.
• 所有学生都有机会接受高等教育。
• The state and national Government along with private and public enterprises provide assistance to student in the way of need based and merit grants which are not repaid and loans.
• 国家和州政府连同私企和国企提供学生帮助,用不需要偿还和借贷的奖学金和补助金作为帮助方法。
• Higher Education in America starts after high school where students are prepared to go to work and attend a college or university in the state system.
• 美国高等教育开始在高中毕业以后。高中是学生准备工作和上大学的地方。
• Community Colleges are the most accessible, least expensive, and largest sector of higher education. They are the largest provider of workforce training. With more than 1,200 community colleges they are located near to where students live and work. Community colleges offer certificates, along with Associate and Baccalaureate Degrees.
• 社区大学是最容易进入,最便宜并且是最大的高等教育体系的一部分。他们是最大的提供劳动力培训的地方,有1200多社区学院坐落在学生居住工作的地方附近,社区学院提供学业证书和副学士学位以及学士学位。
• Comprehensive Colleges and Universities offer bachelor, masters, and select doctorate degrees.
• 综合学院和大学提供学士学位,硕士学位和博士学位。
• Research universities are seen as developing new technology and the source for scientific innovation. They offer bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees.
• 研究性大学被看做是用来开发新技术并给科学创新提供资源。他们提供学士学位,硕士学位和博士学位。
• There are a wide range of institutional types that students may attend. They are separated by their source of financial support.
• 有很广泛的机构类型学生可以参与,学生是通过经济来源的不同进行区分。
• Public or government schools receive their funding from the state along with fees paid by students.
• 公立学校通过学生从国家收取学费。
• Private Not-For-Profit institutions are often affiliated with a religious or philanthropic venture. Private colleges often have an endowment and charge fees to students.
• 私有非盈利机构总是依附宗教的或者爱心组织。私立大学般对学生都有一个资助和一个所需缴纳的费用。
• For-Profit institutions derive all their fees from students.
• 盈利企业从学生身上得到费用。
• Increasingly public and private institutions are raising fees and looking for a business or social enterprise model to create revenue from services and leasing intellectual property.
• 越来越多的公立和私立企业在增加费用并寻找商业或社会企业模式从服务和租赁知识产权方面创造收益。
• Students are seeing the cost of education rise and are increasingly going into debt to afford higher education. Student loans in the United States are approaching one trillion dollars.
学生们注意到教育花销的上涨,越来越多的人去借债以负担更多的费用,美国学生的贷款将近一千万亿美元。
• The California Master Plan was created in 1960 and has provided the framework for higher education in California for fifty-four years.
• 加利福尼亚州的总体规划始于1960年并已经为加州高等教育提供了四十年的的框架。
• The intent of the master plan was to balance the competing demands across the state for higher education and to guarantee educational access to all citizens.
• 主计划的目的是平衡整个国家高等教育竞争需求和保证所有公民的教育权利。
• It created the California Community College System, the California State University System, and the University of California System.
• 它创建了加州社区学院系统,加州州立大学系统和加州大学系统。
The plan has served the state well and created one of the best systems of higher education in the world
该计划一直状态良好,创造了一个世界上最好的高等教育系统。
• The California Master Plan created a system based on the graduation rank of students from high school and now is adjusted for SAT and other test scores.
• 加州总体计划创立了一个基于高中毕业生排名的系统,现在以适应SAT和其他测试成绩。
• The top one-eighth of graduating classes are offered acceptance to of the one campuses of the University of California System.
• 前八分之一的毕业班提供接待给加州大学系统中的学校。
• The top one-third of graduating classes are offered acceptance to one of the campuses of the California State University System.
• 前三分之一的毕业班提供接待给加州州立大学系统中的学校。
• Community Colleges are open access to all students who may benefit from the instruction.
• 社区大学对所有”开卷有益“的学生开放通道。
• There are 2.4 Million students enrolled in classes ranging from basic adult education, workforce training, and associate degrees in academic disciplines and career technical education.
• 有240万学生参加成人教育,劳动力培训和副学位学科和职业技术教育课程。
• There is a California Community College System under the leadership of a state Chancellor and governed by an appointed Board of Governors.
• 加州社区学院受州社院教育厅长的领导和指定理事会管理。
• There are 72 regional Community College Districts each with an elected Board of Trustees.
• 72个地区的社区学院学区,每一个都有一个被选举出的理事会。
• There are 112 Community Colleges each independently accredited by the Association Community of College and Junior Colleges.
• 有112所社区学院被社区大学和初级学院协会个别认可。
• California will start offering the Bachelors Degree in the near future with a pilot starting in 2016.
• 加州会在不久的将来于2016开设学士学位试点。

• There is a parallel structure at the state and local levels with both governance bodies and an administrative structure.
• 在国家层级和当地层级的治理和管理结构中存在一个平行结构。
• In addition, the California Legislature has legislated two additional entities: the California Academic Senate and the Associated Students of California as part of the governance structures.
• 另外,加州立法机关设立两个额外的实体:加州学术参议会和学生议会作为治理结构的一部分。
• The Academic Senate and the faculty of the institution are given primary responsibility for Curriculum along with other academic and professional matters.
• 学术参议会和机构的教师主要负责课程以及其他学术和专业问题。
• The Associated Students are charged with promoting student government and contributing to student life.
• 学生议会负责提升学生管理并对学生生活做出贡献。
• The local college administration is charged with the operation of the college and in orchestrating the participatory governance of constituents.
• 当地大学管理机构掌控大学的操作系统并吸收政府成分进行参与。

• The Community College System has prioritized the course offerings and focused on instruction in three areas: Transfer and Degree Programs, Career and Technical Education, and Basic Skills.
• 社区学院系统优先提供课程并集中在三个区域进行建设,转学和学位项目,职业和技术教育以及基本技能。
• Two-year associate degrees offer paths to employment and articulate with 4-year bachelor programs.
• 两年制副学士学位提供就业路径并与四年制本科学位相连接。
• Career and Technical Education courses and programs supply students for the workforce in a range of programs from welding, computer robotics, and professional mariner professions.
• 职业技术教育课程为不同行业提供学生,比如焊接,电脑机器人,水手。
• Basic Skills classes support the mission of access and allow open admission to students into career or academic programs by providing instruction in Math, English, Reading, and English as a Second Language to speakers of other languages.
• 通过提供在数学,英语,阅读和把英语作为第二语种为学生打开进入职业和学术教育项目的通道。

• The primary mission of the community colleges is to offer associate degrees locally and to connect their programs with other higher educational institutions.
• 社区大学的首要任务是为当地提供副学士学位并去连接其他高等教育机构的项目。
• Articulation for courses and program graduates allow students to take courses at other institutions and to progress from one level, the associate degree, to the next, the baccalaureate.
• 课程和毕业生计划的衔接使得学生可以参加其他教育体系的课程并提高等级,由副学士学位提升至学士学位。
• Students may stop-out after they have met their educational goals and return to advance their training as needed throughout their careers.
• 学生了解自己的教育目标后可能会暂停学业,回去进一步的学习在职业生涯中会需要的技能。
• Workplace training is done by the community colleges through individual courses, certificates, and career work focused associate degrees.
• 职场培训是由社区学院集中副学位上通过个别的课程,完成证书,和职业工作。
• Each career program maintains an advisory board of professionals to advise the faculty and administration on curriculum, equipment, facilities, and current industry practices.
• 每一个职业生涯的计划主张由一个专业的顾问委员会去给教员和管理者在有关课程,设备,设施和当前行业实践上一些建议。
• Students gain experience in the work place through externships and internships.
• 学生们通过校外实习期和实习的地方获得了经验。
• While each college is to meet local workplace needs, the state Chancellor’s Office coordinates research and supports program coordination and development.
• 正当每个大学都在为了满足当地职场的需求的时候,州社院教育厅长办公室也协调研究和支持项目的协调和发展。
• The state has grouped career areas into fifteen industry pathways and has state, and regional sector navigators to facilitate the collaboration between colleges.
• 美国将职业领域组织成15条行业路线,且有地区部门的导航者们促进学校与学校的合作。
• The collaboration is supported by grants that are initiated by the national or state government.
• 合作如此顺利是通过国家和政府发起的拨款来支持的。

• This slide and the next list the typology of industries that operate in the California Community College System.
• 这张幻灯片和下一个列表的类型学产业运转在加州社区大学的体系中。
• Colleges are encouraged to have a primary focus on four of the sectors and can have a secondary focus on an additional four sectors.
• 鼓励高校主要关注这四个领域,次要的关注另外的四个领域。
• The fifteen industry sectors are;
• 15个行业类型:
1. Arts, Media and Entertainment
艺术,媒体和娱乐
2. Building Trades and Construction
建筑行业和建设
3. Hospitality, Tourism and Recreation
酒店,旅游和娱乐
4. Agriculture and Natural Resources
农业和自然资源
5. Energy and Utilities
能源及公共事业
6. Fashion and Interior Design
时尚室内设计
7. Engineering and Design
工程设计
8. Health Science and Medical Technology
健康科学和医疗技术

The remaining California Community Industry Sectors are:
余下的加州社区行业类型:
9. Public Services
公共服务
10. Finance and Business
金融和商业
11. Information Technology
信息技术
12. Manufacturing and Product Development
制造和产品开发
13. Marketing, Sales and Service
市场营销,销售和服务
14. Transportation
交通运输
15. Education and Family Services
教育和家庭服务中心

• In order for the community colleges to maintain their primary mission of open access, they offer basic skills in English as a second language, English, Math, and Reading.
• 为了使社区大学能够保持开放这样的一种主要目的,他们提供基本的技能,包括英语强化课程,英语,数学和阅读。
• Colleges also offer courses that introduce students to higher education and how to be a successful students.
• 学校也提供一些课程向学生介绍高等教育,也能学到如何成为一名优秀的学生。
• Tutoring Centers provide a place where students may work on computer directed learning, work with tutors, work/study with peer tutors,and with other forms of supplemental learning programs.
• 辅导中心提供了一个学生可能使用计算机直接学习工作的地方,和导师一起工作学习,与其他形式的补充的学习项目。
• Students with special physical or learning disabilities can get assistance by professionals trained in special accommodations.
• 有特殊的身体和学习障碍的学生能够得到援助,这些学生是由专业人士培训在特殊的住处。

• Orange Coast College gets it name from its location in Orange County California, or the OC, and is 45 miles south-east of Los Angeles .
• 橘海岸学院名字的由来是源于它的地理位置位于加州橘郡,洛杉矶东南45英里处。
• It is one of three colleges in the Coast Community College District. The other two colleges are Coastline Community College and Golden West College
• 橘海岸学院是海岸社区学院区的三所学院之一,其他的两个学院是海岸线社区学院和金西学院。
• With 25,000 students Orange Coast College offers 130 academic and career programs.
• 为25000名橘海岸学院学生提供了130个学术和职业计划。
• The college offers traditional class room based instruction, hybrid courses, and on-line courses.
• 学院提供了传统的教室以教导,混合课程和在线课程为基础。
• The college has a diverse student population with more than half of the students being Asian and Hispanic origin.
• 学院拥有多样化的学生人口,有超过一半的学生是亚裔和西班牙裔血统。
• Orange Coast College has the largest number of students who graduate or transfer to the University of California and the California State University in Orange County and one of the top in the State.
• 橘海岸学院毕业的学生人数最多或者进入到了加州大学和加州州立大学位于橘郡最高的位置。

• Community Colleges vary greatly across the United States. Most have an enrollment under 5,000 students.
• 在美国社区学院有很大的变化,大多数都有5000名学生入学。
• Orange Coast College has a full range of athletics, student life activities, student leadership programs, and service learning comparable to many residential institutions.
• 橘海岸学院有全方位的体育运动,学生生活活动,学生领导力项目和服务学习可比的上许多住宅机构。
• The college has unique programs that serve the community including a recycling center and a child development center.
• 学院具有独特的项目,服务社会包括回收中心和儿童发展中心。
• Orange Coast College has the only 2-year crew team in the United States and competes with top universities throughout the nation. The OCC men’s crew team and coach went to China in the 1970’s to help coach the first Chinese Olympic team.
• 在美国橘海岸学院有一个2年的船员团队,和全国顶尖大学竞争。橘海岸学院的男子船员队伍和教练曾在1970年去过中国并帮助训练第一个中国奥运代表队。

• The Orange Coast College vocational programs include Business, Information Computer Systems, Allied Health Occupations, Hospitality, Consumer Sciences, Kinesiology, Horticulture, Social Services, Technology, and Visual and Performing Arts.
• 橘海岸大学职业规划包括商业,信息计算机系统,医疗辅助职业,消费者科学,运动机能学,园艺,社会服务,技术和视觉和表演艺术
• Orange Coast College has significant depth to the vocational education programs and has some very highly specialized programs:
• 橘海岸学院的职业教育项目具有显著的深度,还有一些非常高度专业化的项目:
• Medical Sonography, Neurodiagnostic Technology, Polysomnography,
• 医学超声检查,神经诊断技术,多导睡眠描记术
• Aviation, Flight Operations, & Professional Mariner
• 航空飞行操作,职业海员
• Advance Manufacturing, and Robotics
• 先进制造技术,机器人技术
• Film/Video, Illustration, Photography, Web Development, & Graphic Design,
• 电影/视频,插画,摄影,网页开发和平面设计
• Dance, Music, & Theatre Arts
• 舞蹈,音乐和戏剧艺术
• Pre-Law, Pre-Medicine
• 法学预科,医学预科

• STEM2 Programs are the foundation for innovation and central to creating a highly trained workforce. STEM2 programs focus on problem based learning.
• 数理工技术2项目是创新的基础和中心去创造一个训练有素的劳动力。该项目专注于基于问题的学习。
• Outreach to the community is an important of engaging the primary and secondary students in the community. Outreach events include summer bridge programs that inform students of career opportunities and include the OCC Math Meet, OCC Science Night where more than 5,000 elementary students and their families vist the college. Central to this effort is the construction of a new 150 state of the art planetarium that will be used for the college as well as the local school system for youth programs.
扩大社区对于社区中小学生是很重要的,扩大的方面包括夏日桥梁计划,橘海岸学院数学会议,橘海岸学院科学之夜,橘海岸学院科学之夜有5000多小学生和家长来参观。这个经历的核心就建立新的150个技术领先的天文馆,从而可被当地教育机构与大学应用,并开设新的更多的青少年项目。

• Athletics add to the student life on the campus, bring in a more diverse student population, and are successful in positioning students to qualify for competitive scholarships and entry to top universities.
• 在校园中运动进入到了学生的生活中,带来了更加多元化的学生人口,也是成功的定位了学生去有资格得到有竞争性的奖学金并进入到顶尖大学。
• Athletes come from out of state and from areas outside the immediate proximity of the college.
• 运动员是来自国外和离学院近的地区。

• Student life varies greatly across the spectrum of community colleges across the country.
• 在全国范围的社区学院学生的生活变化很大。
• Orange Coast Colleges has more student clubs than we have time to name.
• 橘海岸学院学生俱乐部多到我们几乎没有时间去命名。
• Student Government’s Interclub Council provides funding and oversight for student clubs cooperatively with faculty advisors.
• 学生会的国际米兰俱乐部委员会提供资金并监督学生俱乐部和教员顾问的合作。
• Student Government and student clubs provide activities for students to become involved in areas of interest while providing them an learning experience of becoming a club leader, establishing and maintaining a governance process, along with managing a budget.
• 学生会和学生俱乐部为学生提供活动使他们参与到他们感兴趣的领域,同时给他们提供一个成为俱乐部领导的学习经验,建立和维护一个治理流程伴随着管理预算。
• Fundraising events for the community bring students together and engaged in larger social issues such as fund raising for tsunami and earthquake victims.
• 社区带领学生一起募款活动,从事于更大的社会问题就像为海啸和地震灾民筹措资金。
• Two thirds of the students at Orange Coast College are under 25 years of age.
• 橘海岸学院有三分之二的学生是25岁以下的。
• Many adults return to college to advance their skills and to pursue new interests often embracing the latest technologies.
• 许多成年人回到大学提高他们的技能,去追求最新的技术。
• There is a balance of men and women who study at the college although nationally the trend is for women to outnumber men significantly.
• 大学里学习的男女人数比例是平衡的,尽管国际趋势是女性的数目大大压倒男性。

• The demographics of most community colleges represent the communities they serve and are more diverse than most four year colleges and universities.
• 大多数社区学院的人口统计学代表着他们所服务的社会群体,比多数四年制大学更具有多样性。
• The principle of social equity at community colleges strives to allow access to all groups of people regardless of their age, ethnic background, or family income level.
• 社区学院的一个很公平的准则是允许每个人参与进来,不论年龄种族还有家庭收入水平。
• Orange Coast College has a more diverse student population than its immediate surrounding community and students travel across traditional college service areas to attend. Nearly 40 percent of students that attend the college are from out of district.
• 橘海岸学院的人口比其他的社区大学更多样,很多学生远道而来加入。将近40%的学生来自于区域外。

• International students make up 4 percent of the students.
• 国际学生占总人数的4%。
• They come from 60 different countries.
• 他们来自60个不同的国家。
• With most from the Pacific Rim.
• 大部分来自于太平洋沿岸。
• Students come from all over the world.
• 学生来自世界各地。
• In addition to students on visas there are a large number of international permanent visa holders and second generation children of immigrants and refugees whose families have settled in Orange County.
• 除了学生签证,这还有大量的国际永久签证持有者,第二代移民的孩子和家庭已经定居在橘郡的难民。

• Community Colleges provide training for the workplace and have sophisticated curricula and facilities.
• 社区学院提供培训场所并拥有精品课程和设备。
• The curriculum and program of study are based on the demands of the employers who participate in advisory committees and extern or internships.
• 学习的具体科目根据参与的人的需求设置而成。
• The national and state government support the direction of vocational programs through providing research, and offering grants to institutions and target groups of students.
• 当地政府通过开展研究提供资金来支持教学项目。
• The faculty at each college are responsible for designing the curriculum, program requirements, and entrance standards.
• 每个学校的教员负责课程设计,项目需求以及参加标准。

• The college’s role is to interact broadly with state, regional, and state industry representatives along with those who have coordinating roles within the community college system.
• 学院的任务是与国家,地区和国家行业代表连同在社区学院系统起协调作用的人广泛的互动。
• Instruction should be at many levels and when added together be able to create certificates and degrees that meet industry certifications and state licensing requirements.
• 教学体系应该在很多层面,当加在一起可以创建证书和学位能符合国家认证和许可要求。
• The college program Career Technical Education Advisory Boards are essential links with industry throughout the life cycle of career programs.
• 大学职业技术教育咨询委员会是与产业有重要联系的,在整个职业计划的周期里。
• Internships and externships provide real world experience for students and provide valuable feedback opportunities for colleges to continually improve the quality of
• 实习和校外实习期为学生提供真实世界的体验,并为学院提供有价值的反馈去不断提高教学的质量。

• Institutions of Higher Education as uniquely positioned to bring together the academic and industry communities.
• 高等教育机构是唯一能够汇集学术和工业社区的机构。
• This can be done individually, but there is an imperative to come together and like programs and industry on an international basis and scale.
这些都可以逐一完成,但要形成国际规模这些都完成是十分必要的。
• The key is to develop long rang goals that are flexible and will sustain a meaning partnership where all parties benefit on an on-going basis.
• 重点是建立一个稳定的长期目标,使得所有加入进来的团体能持续受益。
• Institutions must internationalize their communities and pursue the highest level of education, training, and support highly developed industries.
• 教学体系要国际化,追求最高水平的教学,培训和支持高度发达的产业。。

• The workplace is becoming more sophisticated. Workers are being asked to perform advance tasks that require highly specialized training that must be continuously updated. Community Colleges and Industry must work together to maintain and develop the talent pool.
• 工作场所变得越来越精细。工人被要求去执行推进任务需要高度专业的训练,必须不断更新。
• 社区大学和行业必须共同努力去维护和开发人才。
• Industry must take a larger role in sharing their expertise in keeping teachers up-to-date with current industry standards and trends.
• 行业必须发挥更大的作用在保持老师分享他们的专业知识与当前行业标准和最新趋势。
• The workplace is on a global stage and both community colleges and industry must prepare high quality workers with mobility of ideas, technology, and continuous learning.工作场所是在全球舞台,社区大学和行业都必须准备具有活性思维,技术和持续学习的高品质员工。
• Higher demands will require greater levels of certification and the baccalaureate in many industries.
• 更高的要求将需要更高水准的证书和学士学位。

• I want to thank you for your attention and hope that you will benefit from some of my comments.
• 感谢大家的关注,希望你们将受益于我的一些评论。
• I also want to thank the Dalian Huamei International Economic and Cultural Exchange Center and the Community College Baccalaureate Association.
• 同样非常感谢大连华美国际经济文化交流中心和美国社区学院学士学位协会。
 

全国人大常委会副委员长、中华职业教育社理事长 陈昌智  更多
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